Wednesday, 27 November 2013


The effects of genuine and fictitious liberty are exemplified in the history of Europe and the United States of North America during the respective revolutions of '76 and '48. As man was created "free" by his God, it is his object to exert his best efforts for the promotion of his mental and temporal benefit; and the chief object of human government is to protect him in the exercise of this undoubted right. So whenever in the course of events, or by the misguided policy of those entrusted with the responsibility of human government, obstacles are thrown in the way of the free and constitutional exercise of man's right, it then may become the duty of the aggrieved to seek redress by all fair and constitutional means. The most obsequious disciples of the "Divine right" of Kings, or of the immunity of King's can not object to this as a general principle of rational government.
In an unjust government the great difficulty lies in guiding the people to avoid the extremes of abject servility, and licentious liberty, for in the mean lies all that is healthy in constitutional government. The best guide to arrive at this happy medium of government is to be found in the light of History, especially in the History of those States where political convulsions and revolutions have, from time to time, taken place. If we pay attention to the lessons which the truthful page of History inculcates we learn wisdom from the past and can distinguish "the tree by its fruit." When we find any Country steadily progressing in the arts of civilization, of rational freedom, and of human happiness, after passing through the ordeal of a revolution, we may safely conclude that those who undertook the hazardous enterprize of a revolution in such Countries were guided by sound principles, a desire to promote the common good of mankind, and influenced solely by a high and holy devotedness to the promotion of the public good. But where we find revolutionary movements attended by the contrary results; when we find all social order abrogated, security for life and property despised, and nothing but party strife and chaotic confusion, anarchy and bloodshed succeed to organized Government, —even of the most despotic kind—we may then fairly conclude that those who under took such an abortive attempt at revolution were not influenced by sound principles, nor by a disinterested wish to promote the social happiness of the people whom they thus rashly undertook to govern. No better exemplification of the tenor of these general remarks can be found than in a careful perusal of the history of the great American Revolution of 1776, and the results of the wise and enlightened policy which dictated it, and the miserably mischievous attempts at misrule, and the consequent horrors entailed upon the people of Europe during 1848, by a handful of ambitious conspirators, aided by a licentious host of emissaries.
The men who signed the declaration of American Independence on the 4th July, '76, were duly selected by their fellow-citizens to protest in the name of their country against the abuses and grievances endured by the American people at the hands of the English Government, and every man so selected, had too great a stake in the welfare of the country to seek revolution for revolution's sake. When the alternative was forced upon them, they did not shrink from the responsibility. Then, and then alone, was it that they pledged their properties, their lives, and their honours to the sacred cause of freedom. The political integrity of these men has never been called in question ; and why ? Because all their actions were above board — as open as daylight itself. There were no concealed conclaves, no secret societies, no masonic signs, no underhand machinations to obtain their end; for their desire was to benefit the the people; to the people all their acts were known, and through the people they conquered. All their proceedings were exposed to public view, and public criticism, and so it should ever be with men who truthfully promote the sacred cause of human happiness. Providence blessed their efforts, the result of which is, that the United States of America is now one of the most powerful and most prosperous nations on the face of the Globe. The men who thus raised it to its present high pinnacle of glory, loved freedom for freedom's sake, and never made "liberty a cloak for licentiousness."
Let us now turn for a little, and contrast with the actions of these brave men the conduct and principles of the revolutionizers of the continent of Europe for the past few years. The primary object of these fellows was to upset all existing forms of government, and establish an unheard-of Utopian Republic in its stead. These men had amongst them individuals of undoubted talent and energy, and many well-meaning parties were imperceptibly led on by the specious but delusive projects held out by the revolutionary conclave. They far exceeded the American revolutionists in upsetting every established form of government, but fatally failed in constructing any thing permanent or useful in its place — witness the operations of Mazzini and his band at Rome, and its fatal effects in scarring from the ranks of true liberty, all men who were not of their extreme and wicked views. In proof of what we thus state, we harden to have before us the "programme" addressed by Mazzini and the secret societies of Switzerland and Italy for affecting their anti-social purposes. There can be no doubt as to the authenticity of this document as it was published in Turin in the month of August, 1848, and has since been so fully verified by events, that were it not that, this singular document, was published antecedent to the enactment of the scenes which have since convulsed Europe, it would appear rather as a description, than as a programme of their nefarious operations. The annexed is the document alluded to :—
"This curious article appeared in the Armonia newspaper of Turin, 29th August, 1848. Its authenticity is but too manifest to all who have witnessed the process of revolutionising and Protestantising Italy during the last few years. The instructions here given to the Freemason Clubs have been, literally carried out, all Europe sees with what results. Every one the least read in modern political history knows the agency by which the revolutionary movement has been regulated, but scarcely hoped so soon to have this key to the machinery."
"We take the following document from the Observateur de Geneve, as it is of great importance for arriving at the causes of the social phenomena passing before our eyes. In October, 1846, two of the Reformist emissaries set out from Lausanne, passed by Chambery, and arrived at Turin on the 1st November from whence they afterwards set out for the other states of Italy. They delivered by order of Mazzini the following Note to their confederates in the plan of social reforms, entitled—
"The different divisions of Italy present to its regeneration certain difficulties which it will be necessary to surmount before any direct progress can be made. But you must not lose courage ; every step towards unity will be a progress ; and without being foreseen, regeneration will be on the point of being complete on the day in which unity can be proclaimed."

Hence, Viva la Lega Italiana, Viva Pio IX. (or Carlo Alberto) red Italia, &c.
"In large countries regeneration is to be sought for by means of the people, in yours by means of the Princes : you must absolutely enlist them in the undertaking ; it is easily managed. The Pope will advance in Reform through principle, and necessity ."  

This was just after he had granted the Amnesty, &c.  
" The King of Piedmont, from the idea of becoming Sovereign of Italy ; the Grand Duke of Tuscany, from inclination and imitation and the little princes will have other things to think of besides reforms. Do not be alarmed about the parts occupied by the Austrians. It is possible that reforms, taking them at a disadvantage.—
Literally "by the shoulders," a significant hint at the revolutions preparing behind them in their own country, which have since been effected,
"May make them advance more rapidly than others in the way of progress. The people to which a Constitution has given the right of demanding peremptorily may speak out boldly, and in case of necessity command by insurrection ; but one that is still in slavery can only sing about its wishes, so as to let them find expression without giving too much offence."  
Street-choruses have been a most prominent and effective political agent in the Progresso. Even the Hymn of Pius IX. bears the stamp of Freemasonry, the words being by Sterbini.
"Profit of the least concession to bring together the masses, were it only to attest their gratitude ; festivals songs, meetings, numerous relations established among men of all shades of opinion, are sufficient to originate ideas, and give the people consciousness of their strength, and make them exigent in their demands."
Hence the clubs, café committees, processions, to the Quirinal to accustom the people to obey popular leaders, compel all to aid the festivity, and teach them to march preparatory to extending the formation of the Civic Guard, &c.
" ' The concurrence of the great is of indispensable necessity to the growth, of reform in a country of feudalism. If you have only the people, diffidence will arise at the very outset, and all will be lost. If the movement is led by a few great names, they will serve as a passport to the people. Italy is still what France was before the Revolution; it wants its Mirabeaus, Lafayettes, and all the rest of them. A great personage may be held back by material interests ; but he may be taken by his vanity. Very few of them will go on to the end. It is a most essential point to keep the final purpose of the great revolution unknown. We must never let them see more than the first next step they have to take."

Whether vanity, folly, or cowardice have led them on their way, the nobility of the Pope's States at least, almost without an exception, have reached the lowest depth of degradation the revolutionists could desire. Instead of standing boldly round their sovereign, and by their influence, which at the beginning of this reign would have been immense, giving a rallying point for the real friends of the Church and State, and a check to the torrent of mob-government and republicanism, by which the reforms of the Pope would have had time to become consolidated, and that violent flood that has so nearly swept all away, have been broken before it reached the steps of the Pontifical throne, these descendants, not of the conquerors of the world, but of middle-age banditti, have been foremost in doing all the dirty work of the republicans, from insolence to the Pope down to kissing Cicerovacchio.
"In Italy the Clergy is rich in money and in the Faith of the people; it must be conciliated for these two advantages, and its influence gained by every means. If you can create Savonarolas in every capital, we shall make gigantic strides. The clergy is not hostile to liberal institutions. Seek, therefore, to associate it for this first work, which may be considered as the necessary vestibule, to the Temple of Equality. Without the vestibule, the sanctuary remains shut. Do not attack the clergy in its fortunes, nor in its orthodoxy ; promise it liberty and you will see it in your ranks."

The sufferings of the great majority of the Clergy will, we must hope, expiate the errors of the few whom this snare has caught.
" In Italy the people is still to be created ; but it is ready to break the shell that still confines it. Speak often and much and everywhere of its miseries and its necessities. The people does not yet under stand, but the operative part of society is penetrated with these sentiments of compassion for the people, and sooner or later it works. Profound and learned discussions are neither necessary or opportune; there are certain generative words which contain every thing, and which ought to be often repeated to the people: liberty, the rights of man, progress, equality, fraternity, these are what the people will understand, especially when opposed to the words despotism, privileges, tyranny, slavery, &c. The difficulty is not to convince the people but to unite them ; the day which sees them united will be the dawn of the new era."
" The ladder of progress is long ; time and patience are requisite to mount to the top. The quickest way of proceeding is only to take one step at a time ; trying to take a flying leap to the last is to expose the undertaking to many mischanges. It is now two thousand years since a great philosopher, called Christ, preached the fraternity which is still looked for through the world. Receive, therefore, every assistance that may be offered you, without ever regarding it as unimportant, The terrestrial globe is formed of grains of sand ; whoever is willing to take a single step of progress with you, must belong to your party till he abandons you. A king gives a more liberal law, applaud him, at the same time demanding from him that which you want to follow. A minister shows only views of progress, hold him up as a model. A great man shows he does not know what to do with his privileges, put yourself under his direction ; if he wishes to stop, you will be in time enough to leave him ; he will remain isolated and powerless against you, and you will have a thousand means of rendering unpopular those who are opposed to your projects. Every personal annoyance, every illusion, every irritated ambition may become serviceable to the cause of progress, if others give them a good direction.

"The army is the greatest obstacle to the progress of socialism ; being always submissive by education, by organisation, by dependence, it is a great help to despotism, It is to be paralysed by the general education of the people ; when there is once diffused among the public the idea that an army constituted to defend the country ought not in any case to concern itself about interior policy, but to respect the people ; you may proceed without it, and even against it, without risk, The clergy holds only one-half of the social doctrine ; it desires as we do that fraternity which it calls charity ; but its hierarchy and habits make this an auxiliary of authority, that is, despotism ; you must take what it has good and cut away the bad. Contrive to introduce equally into the Church and all will go right. The clerical power is personified in the Jesuits ; the odium of this name is a power in the hands of the Socialists ; remember this."

The fate of the Jesuits wherever the revolutionists prevail was decided long before this Note. In the Tablet and other Catholic publications, at the beginning, of the year 1842, there was a statement that at a late meeting of the Grand Lodge of Freemasons at Brussels, it had been resolved that the destruction of this Order should be the first object to which the Freemason agency should be direction as indispensably necessary for the accomplishment of their schemes to revolutionise Europe ; the plan to be observed being, after certain preliminary skirmishings of the press, to create disturbances and attribute them to the Jesuits, making it appear as if their expulsion was necessary for the preservation of the public peace. It was calculated that partly from fear for themselves, partly from jealousy and dislike, the other clergy would not make common cause with them ; and their pious friends would mourn but not defend them ; and all the foolish and the wicked be on the side of their enemies. And so it has been. The branch of the conspiracy by which their expulsion has been effected in Italy during the revolution by one uniform system of operations in every case, through the instrumentality of an inconsiderable band of travelling agents who hired small mobs for the occasion, made a feint or two which they repressed, and then either by force or by falsely persuading the local authorities that nothing but the instant dispersion of the Fathers could save their lives from the fury of the people, has been too transparent to require any elucidation. But great as the personal sufferings of the Jesuits has been and continues to be, they at least have purchased a glorious triumph for the honour of their Institute ; for they, have been undeniably sacrificed as a peace offering to the enemies whose design, was in the overthrow not only of the throne but the religion of the Pope. Until they were removed, these wretches could make no progress ; the instant they were gone, Piedmont followed the example of Switzerland in proscribing, persecuting and robbing the Church; Church property to a great extent has been already sacrificed, and more was demanded even in the Papal States. Education was at a stand-still ; the most frightful systematic corruption of youth was going on ; vice everywhere prevailed, religion languished ; cries of Death to the Pope, Cardinals, and Clergy had been shouted under the very windows of the Quirinal, numerous assassinations of the most zealous Clergy had taken place in various parts of the country; and the common observation in Rome was, that " it is a daily miracle things are not worse than they are." Assuredly, the sight of what the country had fallen to, upon their ceasing to influence so many of its inhabitants, is as emphatic a testimony to their merit as all the testimonials in their honour from above sixty Bishops and Archbishops in Italy, including the bold defence of them in the pastoral of the Bishop of Grubbio, that have been lately printed. It is incontestible that they were not sacrificed to the wish of the people, except in two or three instances, but in spite of it; and though many were for a time deceived into connivance at the outrage, the sight of what has followed, the fear of what is threatened, the destruction of trade, the monetary distress, and the probability of having few visitors began to open men's eyes to the real designs of the anti-Jesuit faction and sober their thoughts considerably.
"Associate, associate, associate ; everything is in this word. Secret societies give an irresistible force to the party that can invoke their aid. Do not fear to see them divided ; the more they are divided the better they will succeed. All go to the same object by different roads ; their secrecy will be often violated ; so much the better ; secrecy is necessary to give tranquility to the members ; a certain transparency is also necessary to inspire fear in those who would be stationary. When a great number of associates receiving the word of command to diffuse and make it pass for public opinion, are able to concert together for a movement, they will find the old edifices pierced through in all directions, and falling, as if by a miracle, at the least breath of progress. They will be themselves astonished to see flying before the simple power of opinion, the kings, lords, rich people, and Priests who have formed the old social edifice. Courage and perseverence."

Such were the nefarious means by which Mazzini sought the destruction of peace and order in Europe. But his impious conspiracy has been detected and defeated.

 Freeman's Journal 13 May 1852,

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